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Vitamin-Mineral Deficiency Chart
Equine Visual Vitamin-Mineral Deficiency Chart

  • EAR - Lowered resistance to infections.
  • EYE - Xerophthalmia; night blindness; faulty vision; conjunctivitis.
  • NOSE & THROAT - Infections of mucous membranes.
  • TONGUE - Inflammations; glossitis.
  • TEETH & GUMS - Aids in utilization of calcium; defective dentin; inflammation of gums.
  • BLOOD VESSELS - By lowering of blood serum esterase, may affect fat metabolism. (see also Iron)
  • NERVES - Degeneration of nervous system characterized by lack of co-ordination of legs and impairment of vision.
  • HEART - Edema; lowered resistance to infections.
  • HOOFS - Cracks, furrows, and abnormal growth.
  • LUNGS- Lowered resistance to infections; haemorrhagic conditions.
  • LIVER - Diseased conditions of organ may reduce capacity for storing vitamin A, and conversion of carotene and other pigment precursors in vitamin A.
  • GASTRO-INTESTINAL SYSTEM - Disturbances in system may result in poor absorption of carotene and other pigment precursors of vitamin A, resulting in deficiency of this vitamin; poor gastric digestion.
  • KIDNEYS - Nephritis; calculi; predisposes to secondary infections.
  • COLON - Predisposition to oitis.
  • URINARY BLADDER - Cystitis; calculi.
  • SEXUAL ORGANS: Male - Deficiency of long standing may result in sterility; testicular degeneration, particularly when associated with deficiency of Vitamin E.
  • SEXUAL ORGANS: Female - Sterility; weak or stillborn offspring; faulty lactation.
  • MUSCLE - Lack of muscular co-ordination.
  • SKIN & COAT - Predisposes to dermatitis of various types; roughened coat.
  • BONES & JOINTS - Affects utilization of calcium, thereby affecting structure and formation of bones and joints; joint involvement with lameness and rarifying lesions in joint cartilages.
  • TONGUE - Glossitis; atrophy, edema.
  • NERVES - Various disturbances associated with nervous system; nervousness; irritability; neuritis.
  • BLOOD VESSELS - Capillary weakness; anemia.
  • HEART - Decreased B content of heart muscle, normally high in the horse; myocardial infections; hypertrophy.
  • GASTRO-INTESTINAL SYSTEM - Poor appetite; anorexia; gastric disturbances; faulty carbohydrate metabolism; nervous dyspepsia; inanition.
  • COLON - Stasis; faulty absorption.
  • SEXUAL ORGANS: Female - Termination of oestrus cycle; disturbances in endocrine secretions; faulty ovulation.
  • URINARY BLADDER - Incontinence due to nervous irritability.
  • MUSCLE - Muscular atrophy; degeneration and wasting of muscular fibre; vitamin not stored in muscle tissue, except cardiac muscle, to any appreciable extent.
  • SKIN & COAT - Dry, scaly skin.
  • BONES & JOINTS - Bone marrow degeneration.

  • EYE - Keratitis, corneal ulcer; cataracts.
  • TONGUE - Ulcerations; oedema.
  • NERVES - Nervous tissue involvement.
  • TEETH & GUMS - Inflammation of gums.
  • BLOOD VESSELS - Secondary anaemia.
  • GASTRO-INTESTINAL SYSTEM - Faulty carbohydrate metabolism.
  • COLON - Colitis; degenerative changes.
  • SKIN & COAT - Certain types of dermatitis and skin lesions.

  • NERVES - Nervous irritability.
  • TEETH & GUMS - Defective calcification; decay and dental caries. (see also Calcium & Phosphorus)
  • BLOOD VESSELS - Deficiency of calcium and phosphorus in blood.
  • SEXUAL ORGANS: Female - Affects reproduction and viability of offspring.
  • MUSCLE - Rickets, resulting in poor muscle co-ordination.
  • BONES & JOINTS - Poor absorption of calcium and phosphorus resulting in low content of theses mineral elements in the bones; poor dentition; rickets; osteomalacia and osteoporosis; faulty bone structure. (see also Calcium & Phosphorus)

  • NERVES - Loss of nerve and muscular co-ordination.
  • GASTRO-INTESTINAL SYSTEM - Faulty metabolism.
  • MUSCLE - Loss of muscular control.
  • SKIN & COAT - Skin lesions; roughened coat.
Nicotinic Acid & Other B Complex Factors
  • TONGUE - Pellagra-like syndrome.
  • BLOOD VESSELS - Anemia.
  • GASTRO-INTESTINAL SYSTEM - Anorexia; digestive disturbances; poor assimilation.
  • SKIN & COAT - Skin lesions; loss of hair.

  • NERVES - Lack of nerve and muscular co-ordination.
  • SEXUAL ORGANS: Male - Sterility, responding poorly to treatment; sterility associated with vitamin A responds more readily to vitamins A and E treatment; gonadal atrophy resulting in impotence.
  • SEXUAL ORGANS: Female - Sterility, miscarriages; resorption of embryo; sexual frigidity.
Bone-Building Element

Essential for building of normal bones and teeth.
  • Also of importance in heart, nerve and muscle functions.
  • Essential element in blood.
  • Utilized by the body in enzyme activation.
  • Essential for lactation and reproduction.
  • Ratio of calcium to phosphorus intake of extreme importance; imbalance, particularly high phosphorus to calcium may result in osteodystrophia fibrosa.
    Satisfactory ratio of Ca-P equals 1.0-0.8.
Bone-Building Element

Essential for building of sound bones and teeth.
  • Also essential to metabolism of carbohydrates and fats and enzyme activation.
  • Important in enzyme activity of vitamins B1 and B2.
  • In form of its salts, acts as a buffer in blood and muscle tissue.
  • Phosphorus may be deficient in the roughage feed in certain regions.

Cell and Body Fluid Regulating Elements

Regulate osmotic pressure in cellular tissue of body fluids.
  • Aid in regulation of buffer action of blood and ion balance.
  • Potassium aids in regulating muscle function.
  • Sodium protects body against excessive dehydration
  • Deficiency of potassium not usually common in herbivorous animals who, however, require additional salt (sodium chloride) in their diets.
Blood-Building Element

Essential in formation of haemoglobin, in oxygen transfer, and in cell respiration.
  • Aids in blood cell development and prevention of nutritional anaemia.
Bio-Catalytic Element

Necessary together with iron in formation of haemoglobin, acting only as "Biological Catalyst".
  • Aids in tissue respiration and prevention of certain types of nutritional anaemia.
Muscle and Bone Building Element

Essential for normal growth of animals.
  • Essential for nerve and muscle activity, and bone structure.
  • Acts as a coenzyme in phosphorus metabolism.
Essential Trace Element

  • Essential for normal growth and the proper functioning of lactation and reproduction.
Essential Trace Element

  • Deficiency may result in loss of red blood cells and in emaciation and general rundown condition.
Essential Trace Element

Aids in promotion of normal growth and tissue respiration.
  • Interrelated with insulin and vitamin B1 deficiencies in certain animal species.
  • May play role in development of normal coat of hair.
Essential Trace Element

Essential in the growth and functions of the thyroid gland and formation of thyroxine.
  • Important in regulation of basal metabolism.
  • For prevention of goiter.
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